Health A-Z

What is a neurologist? What they treat, procedures, and more

Neurologists are medical experts who specialize in analyzing (diagnosis) and treating conditions that damage the nervous system. Patients who are believed to be developing signs of neurological issues are referred to the best neurology hospital in Bangalore

Conditions related to the nervous system are very complicated and require adequate treatment immediately. The neurological diseases include diabetic neuropathy, Alzheimer’s disease, headache, diabetic neuropathy, and damage to nerves.

The nervous system consist of two major sections:

  • Central Nervous System (CNS)—the spinal cord and brain.
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)—it includes all the nerves outside of the CNS.

Due to the complexity of the nervous system, neurologists specialize in treating certain groups of people with specific neurological conditions. 

When these doctors complete their training (residency), they prefer to focus on their fellowship program (1 to 2 years), where they learn/practice in their subspecialty.

The subspecialties can be listed as:

  • Pain medicine
  • Pediatric/child neurology
  • Vascular neurology
  • Autonomic disorders
  • Neuropsychiatry
  • Neurocritical care
  • Neuromuscular medicine
  • Sleep medication
  • Brain injury
  • Epilepsy
  • Hospice and palliative care neurology
  • Neurodevelopmental disorder
  • Headache medicine

What are the treatments the neurologists specialize in?

Neurologists specialize in neurological issues, which harm the spinal cord, brain, and nerves. 

The conditions that these neurologists can treat are:

  • Headaches and migraines
  • Epilepsy
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Sleep disorders
  • Infections of the nervous system, such as encephalitis, HIV, and meningitis.
  • Neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Stroke
  • Brain tumors
  • Neuromuscular conditions like multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis.

The neurologists in the best neurology hospital in Bangalore will offer almost all of these treatments. Hence, find the best one nearby your area for proper treatments.

What are the procedures they perform when neurological issues are diagnosed?

Neurologists perform a variety of medical procedures when they diagnose a condition. These procedures are where they specialize in their initial years of training, and they become almost experts in the treatment of specific diseases.

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Some of the procedures performed on the patients are:

Lumbar puncture

The experts (in neurology) can also perform a “lumbar puncture,” which collects the sample of spinal fluid. They use this procedure to help diagnose the below-mentioned conditions.

  • Encephalitis
  • Leukemia
  • Dementia
  • Bleeding in the brain
  • Myelitis
  • Meningitis
  • Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis

Neurologists use lumbar punctures to cure conditions related to the spinal cord. They usually inject antibiotics, cancer treatment drugs, anesthetics, etc., using a lumbar puncture.


A neurologist can also perform electromyography (EMG), which can easily access & analyze the muscle response to electric stimulation from motor neurons, which are particular nerves that control muscle movement


The specialized doctors use electroencephalograms and record electrical activity. The neurons in the head communicate with others through electrical impulses, which an EEG can pick up. EEG tracks brain wave patterns too.

ECG can be used to treat the following:

  • Seizure
  • Brain tumors
  • Sleep depravity
  • Epilepsy

Tensilon test

The disease known as myasthenia gravis is a very rare disease (neuromuscular) that makes your arm and leg muscles weak. The Tensilon test is a type of blood test that can diagnose this disease accurately.

Other tests:

A neurologist uses the following tests to help prevent/treat neurological conditions:

  • Genetic testing
  • Angiography
  • Laboratory tests such as blood and urine analyses
  • Biopsy
  • Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT, PET, and MRI

When should you consult a neurologist?

A neurological condition can happen anytime in a person’s life. If one develops these symptoms, one must consult a neurologist immediately.

  • Weakness in muscle
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of coordination
  • Sensory changes that damage the sense of vision, smell, taste, and touch
  • Confusion
  • Partial or complete paralysis

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